Version 10.1.1

Version 10.1.1


Version 10.1.0

New themes:

Parser Engine:

  • (parser) Now escapes quotes in text content when escaping HTML (#2564) Josh Goebel
  • (parser) Adds keywords.$pattern key to grammar definitions (#2519) Josh Goebel
  • (parser) Adds SHEBANG utility mode Josh Goebel
  • (parser) Adds registerAliases method (#2540) Taufik Nurrohman
  • (enh) Added on:begin callback for modes (#2261) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) Added on:end callback for modes (#2261) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) Added ability to programatically ignore begin and end matches (#2261) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) Added END_SAME_AS_BEGIN mode to replace endSameAsBegin parser attribute (#2261) Josh Goebel
  • (fix) fixMarkup would rarely destroy markup when useBR was enabled (#2532) Josh Goebel


  • htmlbars grammar is now deprecated. Use handlebars instead. (#2344) Nils Knappmeier
  • when using highlightBlock deprecated. Use result.relevance instead. (#2552) Josh Goebel
  • ditto for => result.second_best.relevance (#2552)
  • lexemes is now deprecated in favor of keywords.$pattern key (#2519) Josh Goebel
  • endSameAsBegin is now deprecated. (#2261) Josh Goebel

Language Improvements:

  • fix(groovy) strings are not allowed inside ternary clauses (#2217) Josh Goebel
  • fix(typescript) add readonly keyword (#2562) Martin (Lhoerion)
  • fix(javascript) fix regex inside parens after a non-regex (#2530) Josh Goebel
  • enh(typescript) use identifier to match potential keywords, preventing false positivites (#2519) Josh Goebel
  • enh(javascript) use identifier to match potential keywords, preventing false positivites (#2519) Josh Goebel
  • [enh] Add OPTIMIZE: and HACK: to the labels highlighted inside comments Josh Goebel
  • enh(typescript/javascript/coffeescript/livescript) derive ECMAscript keywords from a common foudation (#2518) Josh Goebel
  • enh(typescript) add setInterval, setTimeout, clearInterval, clearTimeout (#2514) Josh Goebel
  • enh(javascript) add setInterval, setTimeout, clearInterval, clearTimeout (#2514) Vania Kucher
  • enh(cpp) add pair, make_pair, priority_queue as built-ins (#2538) Hankun Lin
  • enh(cpp) recognize priority_queue pair as cpp containers (#2541) Hankun Lin
  • fix(javascript) prevent set keyword conflicting with setTimeout, etc. (#2514) Vania Kucher
  • fix(cpp) Fix highlighting of unterminated raw strings (#2261) David Benjamin
  • fix(javascript) => function with nested () in params now works (#2502) Josh Goebel
  • fix(typescript) => function with nested () in params now works (#2502) Josh Goebel
  • fix(yaml) Fix tags to include non-word characters (#2486) Peter Plantinga
  • fix(swift) @objcMembers was being partially highlighted (#2543) Nick Randall
  • enh(dart) Add late and required keywords, the Never built-in type, and nullable built-in types (#2550) Sam Rawlins
  • enh(erlang) Add underscore separators to numeric literals (#2554) Sergey Prokhorov
  • enh(handlebars) Support for sub-expressions, path-expressions, hashes, block-parameters and literals (#2344) Nils Knappmeier
  • enh(protobuf) Support multiline comments (#2597) Pavel Evstigneev
  • fix(toml) Improve key parsing (#2595) Antoine du Hamel

Version 10.0.2

Brower build:

  • Issue (bug) Fix: Version 10 fails to load as CommonJS module. (#2511) Josh Goebel
  • Issue (removal) AMD module loading support has been removed. (#2511) Josh Goebel

Parser Engine Changes:

  • Issue fix(parser) Fix freez issue with illegal 0 width matches (#2524) Josh Goebel

Version 10.0.1

Parser Engine Changes:

  • (bug) Fix sublanguage with no relevance score (#2506) Josh Goebel

Version 10.0.0

New languages:

  • add(php-template) Explicit language to detect PHP templates (vs xml) Josh Goebel
  • enh(python) Added python-repl for Python REPL sessions
  • add(never) Added 3rd party Never language support

New themes:

Parser Engine Changes:

  • (bug) Fix beginKeywords to ignore . matches (#2434) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) add before:highlight plugin API callback (#2395) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) add after:highlight plugin API callback (#2395) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) split out parse tree generation and HTML rendering concerns (#2404) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) every language can have a name attribute now (#2400) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) improve regular expression detect (less false-positives) (#2380) Josh Goebel
  • (enh) make noHighlightRe and languagePrefixRe configurable (#2374) Josh Goebel

Language Improvements:

  • enh(python) Exclude parens from functions params (#2490) Álvaro Mondéjar
  • enh(swift) Add compactMap to keywords as built_in (#2478) Omid Golparvar
  • enh(nim) adds func keyword (#2468) Adnan Yaqoob
  • enh(xml) deprecate ActionScript inside script tags (#2444) Josh Goebel
  • fix(javascript) prevent get/set variables conflicting with keywords (#2440) Josh Goebel
  • bug(clojure) Now highlights defn- properly (#2438) Josh Goebel
  • enh(bash) default value is another variable (#2439) Josh Goebel
  • enh(bash) string nested within string (#2439) Josh Goebel
  • enh(bash) Add arithmetic expression support (#2439) Josh Goebel
  • enh(clojure) Add support for global definitions name (#2347) Alexandre Grison
  • enh(fortran) Support Fortran 77 style comments (#2416) Josh Goebel
  • (csharp) add support for @identifier style identifiers (#2414) Josh Goebel
  • fix(elixir) Support function names with a slash (#2406) Josh Goebel
  • fix(javascript) comma is allowed in a “value container” (#2403) Josh Goebel
  • enh(apache) add deny and allow keywords Josh Goebel
  • enh(apache) highlight numeric attributes values Josh Goebel
  • enh(apache) highlight IP addresses, ports, and strings in sections Josh Goebel
  • enh(php) added more keywords and include <?= syntax to meta Taufik Nurrohman
  • fix(protobuf) Fix rpc when followed by a block (#) Josh Goebel
  • enh(zephir) almost complete rework of the zephir grammar (#2387) Josh Goebel
  • (markdown) much improved code block support (#2382) Josh Goebel
  • (markdown) improve bold/italic nesting (#2382) Josh Goebel
  • enh(csharp) Support where keyword as class constraint (#2378) Josh Goebel
  • enh(csharp) Allow reference path in class inheritance lists (#2378) Josh Goebel
  • enh(csharp) Add generic modifiers (in, out) (#2378) Josh Goebel
  • (fortran) enh(fortran) support intrinsic data types (#2379) Josh Goebel
  • enh(java) annotations can include numbers (#2377) Josh Goebel
  • enh(java) annotations can take params (#2377) Josh Goebel
  • enh(java) allow annotations inside function call params (#2377) Josh Goebel
  • enh(parser) pre/post-highlightBlock callbacks via plugin (#2285) Josh Goebel
  • (fortran) Add Fortran 2018 keywords and coarray intrinsics (#2361) Sam Miller
  • (delphi) highlight hexadecimal, octal, and binary numbers (#2370) Robert Riebisch
  • enh(plaintext) added text and txt as alias (#2360) Taufik Nurrohman
  • enh(powershell) added PowerShell v5.1/v7 default aliases as “built_in”s (#2423) Sean Williams
  • enh(yaml) added support for timestamps (#2475) Peter Plantinga

Developer Tools:

  • added Dockerfile for optionally developing with a container

Version 9.18.1

Grammar Improvements:

  • bug(coffeescript) fix freezing bug due to badly behaved regex (#2376) Josh Goebel

Version 9.18.0

New languages:

  • none.

New themes:

  • none.

Core Changes:

  • none.

Language Improvements:

  • (javascript) fix JSX self-closing tag issues (#2322) Josh Goebel
  • (fortran) added block and endblock keywords (#2343) Philipp Engel
  • (javascript) support jsx fragments (#2333) Josh Goebel
  • (ini) support TOML arrays, clean up grammar (#2335) Josh Goebel
  • (vbnet) add nameof operator to the keywords (#2329) Youssef Victor
  • (stan) updated with improved coverage of language keywords and patterns. (#1829) Jeffrey Arnold
  • enh(cpp) Detect namespaced function types (A::typeName func(...)) (#2332) Josh Goebel
  • enh(cpp) Detect namespaced functions also (A::functionName) (#2332) Josh Goebel
  • enh(cpp) Properly detect decltype(auto) (#2332) Josh Goebel
  • enh(cpp) recognize primitive types (int8_t, etc.) as function types (#2332) Josh Goebel

Developer Tools:

  • feat(developer): add button to show parsed structure (#2345) Nils Knappmeier

Version 9.17.1


  • fix(parser): resolve IE 11 issue with Object.freeze() (#2319) Josh Goebel

Version 9.17.0

New languages:

  • none.

New themes:

Core Improvements:

  • chore(parser): switch from createElementNS to createElement (#2314) Josh Goebel
  • enh(parser): add better error when a language requirement is missing (#2311) Josh Goebel
  • fix(parser/docs): disallow self mode at the top-level of a language (#2294) Josh Goebel
  • enh(parser) add safe & debug modes. Better error handling for crash conditions. (#2286) Josh Goebel
  • fix(parser): Fix merger HTML attribute quoting (#2235) Josh Goebel
  • fix(parser): Look-ahead regex now work for end matches also (#2237) Josh Goebel
  • fix(parser): Better errors when a language is missing (#2236) Josh Goebel
  • fix(parser): freeze built-in modes to prevent grammars altering them (#2271) Josh Goebel
  • fix(themes): fix inconsistencies between some themes padding/spacing (#2300) Josh Goebel
  • ehh(build) Add CI check for building a “use strict” safe rollup package from NPM builds (#2247) Josh Goebel
  • fix(pkg): Prefix global addEventListener with window to be able to minify with closure compiler (#2305) Kirill Saksin

Language Improvements:

  • fix(sql): backslash is not used to escape in strings in standard SQL (#1748) Mike Schall
  • enh(ebnf) add backticks as additional string variant (#2290) Chris Marchesi
  • chore(javascript): add esm related extensions to aliases (#2298) Rongjian Zhang
  • fix(kotlin): fix termination of “”” string literals (#2295) Josh Goebel
  • fix(mercury): don’t change global STRING modes (#2271) Josh Goebel
  • enh(xml) expand and improve document type highlighting (#2287) w3suli
  • enh(ebnf) add underscore as allowed meta identifier character, and dot as terminator (#2281) Chris Marchesi
  • fix(makefile) fix double relevance for assigns, improves auto-detection (#2278) Josh Goebel
  • enh(xml) support for highlighting entities (#2260) w3suli
  • enh(gml) fix naming of keyword class (consistency fix) (#2254) Liam Nobel
  • enh(javascript): Add support for jsdoc comments (#2245) Milutin Kristofic
  • fix(python) fix if getting confused as an f-string (#2200) Josh Goebel and Carl Baxter
  • enh(powershell) major overhaul, huge improvements (#2224)
  • enh(css) Improve @rule highlighting, including properties (#2241) Josh Goebel
  • enh(css) Improve highlighting of numbers inside expr/func calc(2px+3px) (#2241)
  • enh(scss) Pull some of the CSS improvements back into SCSS (#2241)
  • fix(go): Fix escaped character literals (#2266) David Benjamin
  • fix(objectivec): Fix various preprocessor highlighting issues (#2265) David Benjamin
  • fix(objectivec): Handle multibyte character literals (#2268) David Benjamin
  • enh(cpp): Add additional keywords (#2289) Adrian Ostrowski

Version 9.16.2

New languages: none.

New styles: none.


  • fix(arduino) Resolves issue with arduino.js not being “use strict” safe (#2247)

Version 9.16.1

New languages: none.

New styles:


  • Add CLI tool to quickly check for relevance conflicts Mark Ellis (#1554)
  • enhance(twig) update list of filter and tags (#2090)
  • fix(crystal): correctly highlight !~ method definition (#2222)
  • fix dropping characters if we choke up on a 0-width match (#2219)
  • (accesslog) improve accesslog relevancy scoring (#2172)
  • fix(shell): fix parsing of prompts with forward slash (#2218)
  • improve parser to properly support look-ahead regex in begin matchers (#2135)
  • blacklist super-common keywords from having relevance (#2179)
  • fix(swift): support for @dynamicMemberLookup and @propertyWrapper (#2202)
  • fix: endWithParent inside starts now always works (#2201)
  • fix(typescript): constructor in declaration doesn’t break highlighting
  • fix(typescript): only match function keyword as a separate identifier (#2191)
  • feature(arduino) make arduino a super-set of cpp grammar
  • fix(javascript): fix object attributes immediately following line comments
  • fix(xml): remove vbscript as potential script tag subLanguage
  • fix(Elixir): improve regex for numbers
  • fix(YAML): improve matching for keys, blocks and numbers
  • fix(Pony): improve regex for numbers
  • fix(handlebars): add support for raw-blocks, and triple-mustaches(#2175)
  • fix(handlebars): fix parsing of block-comments containing closing mustaches (#2175)
  • fix(handlebars): add support for segment-literal notation, and escaped mustaches (#2184)
  • JSON: support for comments in JSON (#2016)
  • fix(cpp): improve string literal matching
  • fix(highlight.js): omit empty span-tags in the output (#2182)
  • fix(Go): improve function declaration matching
  • fix(python): added support for f-string literal curly braces (#2195)
  • fix(cpp): add future built-in (#1610)
  • fix(python): support comments within function parameters (#2214)

Version 9.15.10

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • support for ruby’s squiggly heredoc (#2049)
  • support css custom properties (#2082)
  • fix(PureBASIC): update to 5.60 (#1508)
  • fix(Kotlin): parenthesized types in function declaration (#2107)
  • fix(Kotlin): nested comment (#2104)
  • fix(isbl): contains key typo (#2103)
  • fix(github-gist.css): match Github styles (#2100)
  • fix(elm): update to latest elm syntax (#2088)
  • fix: Support highlighting inline HTML and CSS tagged template strings in JS and TS (#2105)
  • feat(YAML): add YAML to common languages (#1952)
  • feat(xml): Add support for Windows Script File (.wsf), inline VBScript in XML script tags (#1690)

Version 9.15.9


  • fix(AutoHotkey): order and extended highlighting (#1579)
  • fix(Go): correctly highlight hex numbers, rather than stopping at last ‘d’ or ‘f’. (#2060)
  • fix(Mathematica): Improvements to language (#2065)
  • fix(Node): Adds SCSS build (#2079)
  • fix(Rust): update keywords (#2052)
  • fix(Stata): Added keywords for the meta-analysis suite introduced in Stata 16 (#2081)
  • fix(Bash): escape double quotes (#2048)

Version 9.15.8

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • fix(bash): revert escaped double quotes - broke Firefox/Safari.

Version 9.15.7

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • fix(powershell): Add cmdlets (#2022)
  • fix(Bash): escaped double quotes (#2041)
  • fix(c++): add aliases ‘hh’, ‘hxx’, ‘cxx’ (#2017)
  • fix(ini/toml): Support comments on the same line. (#2039)
  • fix(JSX): not rendering well in a function without parentheses. (#2024)
  • fix(LiveCode): language definition update (#2021)
  • fix(markdown): indented lists (#2004)
  • fix(styles/school-book): don’t style all the pre, use .hljs instead (#2034)
  • fix(JSX): Modify JSX tag detection to use XML language regex in place of simplistic \w+

Version 9.15.6

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • Move dependencies to be devDependencies.
  • Fixed security issues in dev dependencies.

Version 9.15.5

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements: 🔥 Hot fix: updated build tool.

Version 9.15.4

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements: 🔥 Hot fix: reverted hljs cli build tool, as it was causing issues with install.

Version 9.15.3

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements: 🔥 Hot fix: reverted hljs cli build tool, as it was causing issues with install.

Version 9.15.2

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements: 🔥 Hot fix that was preventing highlight.js from installing.

Version 9.15.1

New languages: none.

New styles: none.


  • Pony: Fixed keywords without spaces at line ends, highlighting of iso in class definitions, and function heads without bodies in traits and interfaces. Removed FUNCTION and CLASS modes until they are found to be needed and to provide some of the fixes.
  • Support external language files in minified version of highlight.js (#1888)

Version 9.15

New languages: none.

New styles: none.


  • new cli tool hljs - allows easier building from command line.
  • cpp: Fully support C++11 raw strings. (#1897)
  • Python: Treat False None and True as literals (#1920)

Version 9.14.2

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • Gauss fixed to stop global namespace pollution Scott Hyndman.
  • fix(Tcl): removed apostrophe string delimiters (don’t exist)

Version 9.14.1

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • Pony: language improvements (#1958)

Version 9.14.0

New languages: none. New styles: none. Improvements:

  • Pony: add missing “object” highlighting (#1932)
  • Added XQuery built-in functions, prolog declarations, as well as parsing of function bodies, computed and direct constructors, by Duncan Paterson
  • fix(dart): Corrects highlighting with string interpolation. (#1946)
  • fix(swift): be eager on optional-using types (!/?) (#1919)
  • fix(tex): Changed cyrillic to unicode (IE11 throw SCRIPT5021) (#1601)
  • fix(JavaScript): Recognize get/set accessor keywords (#1940)
  • Fixed Dockerfile definition when using highlight continuation parameter, by Laurent Voullemier
  • Added tests & new annotation and verbatim keywords to Crystal, by Benoit de Chezelles
  • Added missing dockerfile markup tests, by Laurent Voullemier Allow empty prompt text in clojure-repl, by Egor Rogov
  • Fixed several issues with Crystal language definition, by Johannes Müller
  • Added C# as an alias for CSharp language, by Ahmed Atito
  • Added generic user-defined proc support, new compiler define, refactor to re-use rules, and add tests to GAUSS, by Matthew Evans
  • Improve Crystal language to highlight regexes after some keywords, by Tsuyusato Kitsune
  • Fix filterByQualifiers: fileInfo can be null
  • Fixed String interpolation in Dart, by Scott Hyndman.

Version 9.13.1


  • C# function declarations no longer include trailing whitespace, by JeremyTCD
  • Added new and missing keywords to AngelScript, by Melissa Geels
  • TypeScript decorator factories highlighting fix, by Antoine Boisier-Michaud
  • Added support for multiline strings to Swift, by Alejandro Isaza
  • Fixed issue that was causing some minifiers to fail.
  • Fixed autoDetection to accept language aliases.

Version 9.13.0

New languages:

New styles:


Version 9.12.0

New language:

New style:


  • Crystal updated with new keywords and syntaxes by Tsuyusato Kitsune.
  • Julia updated to the modern definitions by Alex Arslan.
  • julia-repl added by Morten Piibeleht.
  • Stanislav Belov wrote a new definition for 1C, replacing the one that has not been updated for more than 8 years. The new version supports syntax for versions 7.7 and 8.
  • Nicolas LLOBERA improved C# definition fixing edge cases with function titles detection and added highlighting of [Attributes].
  • nnnik provided a few correctness fixes for Autohotkey.
  • Martin Clausen made annotation collections in Clojure to look consistently with other kinds.
  • Alejandro Alonso updated Swift keywords.

Version 9.11.0

New languages:


Version 9.10.0

Apologies for missing the previous release cycle. Some thing just can’t be automated… Anyway, we’re back!

New languages:


  • Rust got updated with new keywords by Kasper Andersen and then significantly modernized even more by Eduard-Mihai Burtescu (yes, @eddyb, Rust core team member!)
  • Python updated with f-literals by Philipp A.
  • YAML updated with unquoted strings support.
  • Gauss updated with new keywords by Matt Evans.
  • Lua updated with new keywords by Joe Blow.
  • Kotlin updated with new keywords by Philipp Hauer.
  • TypeScript got highlighting of function params and updated keywords by Ike Ku.
  • Scheme now correctly handles `-quoted lists thanks to Guannan Wei.
  • Sam Wu fixed handling of << in C++ defines.

Version 9.9.0

New languages


  • TypeScript updated with annotations and param lists inside constructors, by Raphael Parree.
  • CoffeeScript updated with new keywords and fixed to recognize JavaScript in ```, thanks to thanks to Geoffrey Booth.
  • Compiler directives in Delphi are now correctly highlighted as “meta”.

Version 9.8.0 “New York”

This version is the second one that deserved a name. Because I’m in New York, and the release isn’t missing the deadline only because it’s still Tuesday on West Coast.

New languages:


Version 9.7.0

A comprehensive bugfix release. This is one of the best things about highlight.js: even boring things keep getting better (even if slow).

  • VHDL updated with PSL keywords and uses more consistent styling.
  • Nested C-style comments no longer break highlighting in many languages.
  • JavaScript updated with => functions, highlighted object attributes and parsing within template string substitution blocks (${...}).
  • Fixed another corner case with self-closing <tag/> in JSX.
  • Added HEALTHCHECK directive in Docker.
  • Delphi updated with new Free Pascal keywords.
  • Fixed digit separator parsing in C++.
  • C# updated with new keywords and fixed to allow multiple identifiers within generics <...>.
  • Fixed another slow regex in Less.

Version 9.6.0

New languages:

New styles:

Plus, a few smaller updates for Lasso, Elixir, C++ and SQL.

Version 9.5.0

New languages:

New styles:

Notable changes:

  • Minh Nguyễn added more built-ins to Objective C.
  • Jeremy Hull fixed corner cases in C++ preprocessor directives and Diff comments.
  • Victor Zhou added support for digit separators in C++ numbers.

Version 9.4.0

New languages:

New styles:

Improvements to existing languages and styles:

  • We now highlight function declarations in Go.
  • Taisuke Fujimoto contributed very convoluted rules for raw and interpolated strings in C#.
  • Boone Severson updated Verilog to comply with IEEE 1800-2012 SystemVerilog.
  • Victor Zhou improved rules for comments and strings in PowerShell files.
  • Janis Voigtländer updated the definition of Elm to version 0.17 of the languages. Elm is now featured on the front page of
  • Special variable $this is highlighted as a keyword in PHP.
  • usize and isize are now highlighted in Rust.
  • Fixed labels and directives in x86 assembler.

Version 9.3.0

New languages:

New styles:

Improvements to existing languages and styles:

  • More robust handling of unquoted HTML tag attributes
  • Relevance tuning for QML which was unnecessary eager at seizing other languages’ code
  • Improve GAMS language parsing
  • Fixed a bunch of bugs around selectors in Less
  • Kotlin’s got a new definition for annotations, updated keywords and other minor improvements
  • Added move to Rust keywords
  • Markdown now recognizes ```-fenced code blocks
  • Improved detection of function declarations in C++ and C#

Version 9.2.0

New languages:

New styles:

Improvements to existing languages and styles:

  • We now correctly handle JSX with arbitrary node tree depth.
  • Argument list for (lambda) in Scheme is no longer highlighted as a function call.
  • Stylus syntax doesn’t break on valid CSS.
  • More correct handling of comments and strings and other improvements for VimScript.
  • More subtle work on the default style.
  • We now use anonymous modules for AMD.
  • macro_rules! is now recognized as a built-in in Rust.

Version 9.1.0

New languages:

New Styles:

Improvements to existing languages and styles:

  • Handle return type annotations in Python
  • Allow shebang headers in Javascript
  • Support strings in Rust meta
  • Recognize struct as a class-level definition in Rust
  • Recognize b-prefixed chars and strings in Rust
  • Better numbers handling in Verilog

Version 9.0.0

The new major version brings a reworked styling system. Highlight.js now defines a limited set of highlightable classes giving a consistent result across all the styles and languages. You can read a more detailed explanation and background in the tracking issue that started this long process back in May.

This change is backwards incompatible for those who uses highlight.js with a custom stylesheet. The new style guide explains how to write styles in this new world.

Bundled themes have also suffered a significant amount of improvements and may look different in places, but all the things now consistent and make more sense. Among others, the Default style has got a refresh and will probably be tweaked some more in next releases. Please do give your feedback in our issue tracker.

New languages in this release:

Improvements to existing languages and styles:

  • ECMAScript 6 modules import now do not require closing semicolon.
  • ECMAScript 6 classes constructors now highlighted.
  • Template string support for Typescript, as for ECMAScript 6.
  • Scala case classes params highlight fixed.
  • Built-in names introduced in Julia v0.4 added by Kenta Sato.
  • Refreshed Default style.

Other notable changes:

  • Web workers support added bu Jan Kühle.
  • We now have tests for compressed browser builds as well.
  • The building tool chain has been switched to node.js 4.x. and is now shamelessly uses ES6 features all over the place, courtesy of Jeremy Hull.
  • License added to non-compressed browser build.

Version 8.9.1

Some last-minute changes reverted due to strange bug with minified browser build:

  • Scala case classes params highlight fixed
  • ECMAScript 6 modules import now do not require closing semicolon
  • ECMAScript 6 classes constructors now highlighted
  • Template string support for Typescript, as for ECMAScript 6
  • License added to not minified browser build

Version 8.9.0

New languages:

Notable fixes and improvements to existing languages:

  • Added abstract and namespace keywords to TypeScript by Daniel Rosenwasser
  • Added label support to Dockerfile by Ladislav Prskavec
  • Crystal highlighting improved by Tsuyusato Kitsune
  • Missing Swift keywords added by Nate Cook
  • Improve detection of C block comments
  • Scala case classes params highlight fixed
  • ECMAScript 6 modules import now do not require closing semicolon
  • ECMAScript 6 classes constructors now highlighted
  • Template string support for Typescript, as for ECMAScript 6

Other notable changes:

  • License added to not minified browser build

Version 8.8.0

New languages:

Notable fixes and improvements to existing languages:

  • JavaScript highlighting no longer fails with ES6 default parameters
  • Added keywords async and await to Python
  • PHP heredoc support improved
  • Allow preprocessor directives within C++ functions

Other notable changes:

  • Change versions to X.Y.Z SemVer-compatible format
  • Added ability to build all targets at once

Version 8.7

New languages:

New styles:

Notable fixes and improvements to existing languages:

  • Fix encoding of images when copied over in certain builds
  • Fix incorrect highlighting of the word “bug” in comments
  • Treat decorators different from matrix multiplication in Python
  • Fix traits inheritance highlighting in Rust
  • Fix incorrect document
  • Oracle keywords added to SQL language definition by Vadimtro
  • Postgres keywords added to SQL language definition by Benjamin Auder
  • Fix registers in x86asm being highlighted as a hex number
  • Fix highlighting for numbers with a leading decimal point
  • Correctly highlight numbers and strings inside of C/C++ macros
  • C/C++ functions now support pointer, reference, and move returns

Version 8.6

New languages:

New styles:

Notable fixes and improvements to existing languages:

  • Multi-line raw strings from C++11 are now supported
  • Fix class names with dashes in HAML
  • The async keyword from ES6/7 is now supported
  • TypeScript functions handle type and parameter complexity better
  • We unified phpdoc/javadoc/yardoc etc modes across all languages
  • CSS .class selectors relevance was dropped to prevent wrong language detection
  • Images is now included to CDN build
  • Release process is now automated

Version 8.5

New languages:

New styles:

Notable fixes and improvements to existing languages:

  • ES6 features in JavaScript are better supported now by Gu Yiling.
  • Swift now recognizes body-less method definitions.
  • Single expression functions def foo, do: ... now work in Elixir.
  • More uniform detection of built-in classes in Objective C.
  • Fixes for number literals and processor directives in Rust.
  • HTML <script> tag now allows any language, not just JavaScript.
  • Multi-line comments are supported now in MatLab.

Version 8.4

We’ve got the new demo page! The obvious new feature is the new look, but apart from that it’s got smarter: by presenting languages in groups it avoids running 10000 highlighting attempts after first load which was slowing it down and giving bad overall impression. It is now also being generated from test code snippets so the authors of new languages don’t have to update both tests and the demo page with the same thing.

Other notable changes:

  • The template_comment class is gone in favor of the more general comment.
  • Number parsing unified and improved across languages.
  • C++, Java and C# now use unified grammar to highlight titles in function/method definitions.
  • The browser build is now usable as an AMD module, there’s no separate build target for that anymore.
  • OCaml has got a comprehensive overhaul by Mickaël Delahaye.
  • Clojure’s data structures and literals are now highlighted outside of lists and we can now highlight Clojure’s REPL sessions.

New languages:

Version 8.3

We streamlined our tool chain, it is now based entirely on node.js instead of being a mix of node.js, Python and Java. The build script options and arguments remained the same, and we’ve noted all the changes in the documentation. Apart from reducing complexity, the new build script is also faster from not having to start Java machine repeatedly. The credits for the work go to Jeremy Hull.

Some notable fixes:

  • PHP and JavaScript mixed in HTML now live happily with each other.
  • JavaScript regexes now understand ES6 flags “u” and “y”.
  • throw keyword is no longer detected as a method name in Java.
  • Fixed parsing of numbers and symbols in Clojure thanks to input from Ivan Kleshnin.

New languages in this release:

Version 8.2

We’ve finally got real tests and continuous testing on Travis thanks to Jeremy Hull and Chris Eidhof. The tests designed to cover everything: language detection, correct parsing of individual language features and various special cases. This is a very important change that gives us confidence in extending language definitions and refactoring library core.

We’re going to redesign the old demo/test suite into an interactive demo web app. If you’re confident front-end developer or designer and want to help us with it, drop a comment into the issue on GitHub.

As usually there’s a handful of new languages in this release:

Other improvements:

  • Erik Osheim heavily reworked Scala definitions making it richer.
  • Lucas Mazza fixed Ruby hashes highlighting
  • Lisp variants (Lisp, Clojure and Scheme) are unified in regard to naming the first symbol in parentheses: it’s “keyword” in general case and also “built_in” for built-in functions in Clojure and Scheme.

Version 8.1

New languages:

New styles:

Other improvements:

  • The README is heavily reworked and brought up to date by Jeremy Hull.
  • Added listLanguages() method in the API.
  • Improved C/C++/C# detection.
  • Added a bunch of new language aliases, documented the existing ones. Thanks to Sindre Sorhus for background research.
  • Added phrasal English words to boost relevance in comments.
  • Many improvements to SQL definition made by Heiko August, Nikolay Lisienko and Travis Odom.
  • The shorter lang- prefix for language names in HTML classes supported alongside language-. Thanks to Jeff Escalante.
  • Ruby’s got support for interactive console sessions. Thanks to Pascal Hurni.
  • Added built-in functions for R language. Thanks to Artem A. Klevtsov.
  • Rust’s got definition for lifetime parameters and improved string syntax. Thanks to Roman Shmatov.
  • Various improvements to Objective-C definition by Matt Diephouse.
  • Fixed highlighting of generics in Java.

Version 8.0

This new major release is quite a big overhaul bringing both new features and some backwards incompatible changes. However, chances are that the majority of users won’t be affected by the latter: the basic scenario described in the README is left intact.

Here’s what did change in an incompatible way:

  • We’re now prefixing all classes located in CSS classes reference with hljs-, by default, because some class names would collide with other people’s stylesheets. If you were using an older version, you might still want the previous behavior, but still want to upgrade. To suppress this new behavior, you would initialize like so:

    <script type="text/javascript">
      hljs.configure({classPrefix: ''});
  • tabReplace and useBR that were used in different places are also unified into the global options object and are to be set using configure(options). This function is documented in our API docs. Also note that these parameters are gone from highlightBlock and fixMarkup which are now also rely on configure.

  • We removed public-facing (though undocumented) object hljs.LANGUAGES which was used to register languages with the library in favor of two new methods: registerLanguage and getLanguage. Both are documented in our API docs.

  • Result returned from highlight and highlightAuto no longer contains two separate attributes contributing to relevance score, relevance and keyword_count. They are now unified in relevance.

Another technically compatible change that nonetheless might need attention:

  • The structure of the NPM package was refactored, so if you had installed it locally, you’ll have to update your paths. The usual require('highlight.js') works as before. This is contributed by Dmitry Smolin.

New features:

  • Languages now can be recognized by multiple names like “js” for JavaScript or “html” for, well, HTML (which earlier insisted on calling it “xml”). These aliases can be specified in the class attribute of the code container in your HTML as well as in various API calls. For now there are only a few very common aliases but we’ll expand it in the future. All of them are listed in the class reference.

  • Language detection can now be restricted to a subset of languages relevant in a given context — a web page or even a single highlighting call. This is especially useful for node.js build that includes all the known languages. Another example is a StackOverflow-style site where users specify languages as tags rather than in the markdown-formatted code snippets. This is documented in the API reference (see methods highlightAuto and configure).

  • Language definition syntax streamlined with variants and beginKeywords.

New languages and styles:

Miscellaneous improvements:

  • Highlighting => prompts in Clojure.
  • Jeremy Hull fixed a lot of styles for consistency.
  • Finally, highlighting PHP and HTML mixed in peculiar ways.
  • Objective C and C# now properly highlight titles in method definition.
  • Big overhaul of relevance counting for a number of languages. Please do report bugs about mis-detection of non-trivial code snippets!

Version 7.5

A catch-up release dealing with some of the accumulated contributions. This one is probably will be the last before the 8.0 which will be slightly backwards incompatible regarding some advanced use-cases.

One outstanding change in this version is the addition of 6 languages to the hosted script: Markdown, ObjectiveC, CoffeeScript, Apache, Nginx and Makefile. It now weighs about 6K more but we’re going to keep it under 30K.

New languages:


  • Ruby’s got support for characters like ?A, ?1, ?\012 etc. and %r{..} regexps.
  • Clojure now allows a function call in the beginning of s-expressions (($filter "myCount") (arr 1 2 3 4 5)).
  • Haskell’s got new keywords and now recognizes more things like pragmas, preprocessors, modules, containers, FFIs etc. Thanks to Zena Treep for the implementation and to Jeremy Hull for guiding it.
  • Miscellaneous fixes in PHP, Brainfuck, SCSS, Asciidoc, CMake, Python and F#.

New core developers

The latest long period of almost complete inactivity in the project coincided with growing interest to it led to a decision that now seems completely obvious: we need more core developers.

So without further ado let me welcome to the core team two long-time contributors: Jeremy Hull and Oleg Efimov.

Hope now we’ll be able to work through stuff faster!

P.S. The historical commit is here for the record.

Version 7.4

This long overdue version is a snapshot of the current source tree with all the changes that happened during the past year. Sorry for taking so long!

Along with the changes in code highlight.js has finally got its new home at, moving from its cradle on Software Maniacs which it outgrew a long time ago. Be sure to report any bugs about the site to

On to what’s new…

New languages:

New style themes:

Other notable changes:

  • Corrected many corner cases in CSS.
  • Dropped Python 2 version of the build tool.
  • Implemented building for the AMD format.
  • Updated Rust keywords (thanks to Dmitry Medvinsky).
  • Literal regexes can now be used in language definitions.
  • CoffeeScript highlighting is now significantly more robust and rich due to input from Cédric Néhémie.

Version 7.3

  • Since this version highlight.js no longer works in IE version 8 and older. It’s made it possible to reduce the library size and dramatically improve code readability and made it easier to maintain. Time to go forward!

  • New languages: AppleScript (by Nathan Grigg and Dr. Drang) and Brainfuck (by Evgeny Stepanischev).

  • Improvements to existing languages:

    • interpreter prompt in Python (>>> and ...)
    • @-properties and classes in CoffeeScript
    • E4X in JavaScript (by Oleg Efimov)
    • new keywords in Perl (by Kirk Kimmel)
    • big Ruby syntax update (by Vasily Polovnyov)
    • small fixes in Bash
  • Also Oleg Efimov did a great job of moving all the docs for language and style developers and contributors from the old wiki under the source code in the “docs” directory. Now these docs are nicely presented at

Version 7.2

A regular bug-fix release without any significant new features. Enjoy!

Version 7.1

A Summer crop:

  • Marc Fornos made the definition for Clojure along with the matching style Rainbow (which, of course, works for other languages too).
  • CoffeeScript support continues to improve getting support for regular expressions.
  • Yoshihide Jimbo ported to highlight.js five Tomorrow styles from the project by Chris Kempson.
  • Thanks to Casey Duncun the library can now be built in the popular AMD format.
  • And last but not least, we’ve got a fair number of correctness and consistency fixes, including a pretty significant refactoring of Ruby.

Version 7.0

The reason for the new major version update is a global change of keyword syntax which resulted in the library getting smaller once again. For example, the hosted build is 2K less than at the previous version while supporting two new languages.

Notable changes:

  • The library now works not only in a browser but also with node.js. It is installable with npm install highlight.js. API docs are available on our wiki.

  • The new unique feature (apparently) among syntax highlighters is highlighting HTTP headers and an arbitrary language in the request body. The most useful languages here are XML and JSON both of which highlight.js does support. Here’s the detailed post about the feature.

  • Two new style themes: a dark “south” Pojoaque by Jason Tate and an emulation ofXCode IDE by Angel Olloqui.

  • Three new languages: D by Aleksandar Ružičić, R by Joe Cheng and GLSL by Sergey Tikhomirov.

  • Nginx syntax has become a million times smaller and more universal thanks to remaking it in a more generic manner that doesn’t require listing all the directives in the known universe.

  • Function titles are now highlighted in PHP.

  • Haskell and VHDL were significantly reworked to be more rich and correct by their respective maintainers Jeremy Hull and Igor Kalnitsky.

And last but not least, many bugs have been fixed around correctness and language detection.

Overall highlight.js currently supports 51 languages and 20 style themes.

Version 6.2

A lot of things happened in highlight.js since the last version! We’ve got nine new contributors, the discussion group came alive, and the main branch on GitHub now counts more than 350 followers. Here are most significant results coming from all this activity:

Version 6.1 — Solarized

Jeremy Hull has implemented my dream feature — a port of Solarized style theme famous for being based on the intricate color theory to achieve correct contrast and color perception. It is now available for highlight.js in both variants — light and dark.

This version also adds a new original style Arta. Its author pumbur maintains a heavily modified fork of highlight.js on GitHub.

Version 6.0

New major version of the highlighter has been built on a significantly refactored syntax. Due to this it’s even smaller than the previous one while supporting more languages!

New languages are:

Also this version is marginally faster and fixes a number of small long-standing bugs.

Developer overview of the new language syntax is available in a blog post about recent beta release.

P.S. New version is not yet available on a Yandex CDN, so for now you have to download your own copy.

Version 5.14

Fixed bugs in HTML/XML detection and relevance introduced in previous refactoring.

Also test.html now shows the second best result of language detection by relevance.

Version 5.13

Past weekend began with a couple of simple additions for existing languages but ended up in a big code refactoring bringing along nice improvements for language developers.

For users

  • Description of C++ has got new keywords from the upcoming C++ 0x standard.
  • Description of HTML has got new tags from HTML 5.
  • CSS-styles have been unified to use consistent padding and also have lost pop-outs with names of detected languages.
  • Igor Kalnitsky has sent two new language descriptions: CMake & VHDL.

This makes total number of languages supported by highlight.js to reach 35.

Bug fixes:

  • Custom classes on <pre> tags are not being overridden anymore
  • More correct highlighting of code blocks inside non-<pre> containers: highlighter now doesn’t insist on replacing them with its own container and just replaces the contents.
  • Small fixes in browser compatibility and heuristics.

For developers

The most significant change is the ability to include language submodes right under contains instead of defining explicit named submodes in the main array:

contains: [
  {begin: '\\n', end: hljs.IMMEDIATE_RE}

This is useful for auxiliary modes needed only in one place to define parsing. Note that such modes often don’t have className and hence won’t generate a separate <span> in the resulting markup. This is similar in effect to noMarkup: true. All existing languages have been refactored accordingly.

Test file test.html has at last become a real test. Now it not only puts the detected language name under the code snippet but also tests if it matches the expected one. Test summary is displayed right above all language snippets.


Fine people at Yandex agreed to host highlight.js on their big fast servers. Link up!

Version 5.10 — “Paris”.

Though I’m on a vacation in Paris, I decided to release a new version with a couple of small fixes:

  • Tomas Vitvar discovered that TAB replacement doesn’t always work when used with custom markup in code
  • SQL parsing is even more rigid now and doesn’t step over SmallTalk in tests

Version 5.9

A long-awaited version is finally released.

New languages:

  • Andrew Fedorov made a definition for Lua
  • a long-time highlight.js contributor Peter Leonov made a definition for Nginx config
  • Vladimir Moskva made a definition for TeX

Fixes for existing languages:

  • Loren Segal reworked the Ruby definition and added highlighting for YARD inline documentation
  • the definition of SQL has become more solid and now it shouldn’t be overly greedy when it comes to language detection

The highlighter has become more usable as a library allowing to do highlighting from initialization code of JS frameworks and in ajax methods (see. readme.eng.txt).

Also this version drops support for the WordPress plugin. Everyone is welcome to pick up its maintenance if needed.

Version 5.8

  • Jan Berkel has contributed a definition for Scala. +1 to hotness!
  • All CSS-styles are rewritten to work only inside <pre> tags to avoid conflicts with host site styles.

Version 5.7.

Fixed escaping of quotes in VBScript strings.

Version 5.5

This version brings a small change: now .ini-files allow digits, underscores and square brackets in key names.

Version 5.4

Fixed small but upsetting bug in the packer which caused incorrect highlighting of explicitly specified languages. Thanks to Andrew Fedorov for precise diagnostics!

Version 5.3

The version to fulfil old promises.

The most significant change is that highlight.js now preserves custom user markup in code along with its own highlighting markup. This means that now it’s possible to use, say, links in code. Thanks to Vladimir Dolzhenko for the initial proposal and for making a proof-of-concept patch.

Also in this version:

  • Vasily Polovnyov has sent a GitHub-like style and has implemented support for CSS @-rules and Ruby symbols.
  • Yura Zaripov has sent two styles: Brown Paper and School Book.
  • Oleg Volchkov has sent a definition for Parser 3.

Version 5.2

  • at last it’s possible to replace indentation TABs with something sensible (e.g. 2 or 4 spaces)
  • new keywords and built-ins for 1C by Sergey Baranov
  • a couple of small fixes to Apache highlighting

Version 5.1

This is one of those nice version consisting entirely of new and shiny contributions!

  • Vladimir Ermakov created highlighting for AVR Assembler
  • Ruslan Keba created highlighting for Apache config file. Also his original visual style for it is now available for all highlight.js languages under the name “Magula”.
  • Shuen-Huei Guan (aka Drake) sent new keywords for RenderMan languages. Also thanks go to Konstantin Evdokimenko for his advice on the matter.

Version 5.0

The main change in the new major version of highlight.js is a mechanism for packing several languages along with the library itself into a single compressed file. Now sites using several languages will load considerably faster because the library won’t dynamically include additional files while loading.

Also this version fixes a long-standing bug with Javascript highlighting that couldn’t distinguish between regular expressions and division operations.

And as usually there were a couple of minor correctness fixes.

Great thanks to all contributors! Keep using highlight.js.

Version 4.3

This version comes with two contributions from Jason Diamond:

  • language definition for C# (yes! it was a long-missed thing!)
  • Visual Studio-like highlighting style

Plus there are a couple of minor bug fixes for parsing HTML and XML attributes.

Version 4.2

The biggest news is highlighting for Lisp, courtesy of Vasily Polovnyov. It’s somewhat experimental meaning that for highlighting “keywords” it doesn’t use any pre-defined set of a Lisp dialect. Instead it tries to highlight first word in parentheses wherever it makes sense. I’d like to ask people programming in Lisp to confirm if it’s a good idea and send feedback to the forum.

Other changes:

  • Smalltalk was excluded from DEFAULT_LANGUAGES to save traffic
  • Vladimir Epifanov has implemented javascript style switcher for test.html
  • comments now allowed inside Ruby function definition
  • MEL language from Shuen-Huei Guan
  • whitespace now allowed between <pre> and <code>
  • better auto-detection of C++ and PHP
  • HTML allows embedded VBScript (<% .. %>)

Version 4.1


  • Bash from Vah
  • DOS bat-files from Alexander Makarov (Sam)
  • Diff files from Vasily Polovnyov
  • Ini files from myself though initial idea was from Sam


  • Zenburn from Vladimir Epifanov, this is an imitation of a well-known theme for Vim.
  • Ascetic from myself, as a realization of ideals of non-flashy highlighting: just one color in only three gradations :-)

In other news. One small bug was fixed, built-in keywords were added for Python and C++ which improved auto-detection for the latter (it was shame that my wife’s blog had issues with it from time to time). And lastly thanks go to Sam for getting rid of my stylistic comments in code that were getting in the way of JSMin.

Version 4.0

New major version is a result of vast refactoring and of many contributions.

Visible new features:

  • Highlighting of embedded languages. Currently is implemented highlighting of Javascript and CSS inside HTML.
  • Bundled 5 ready-made style themes!

Invisible new features:

  • Highlight.js no longer pollutes global namespace. Only one object and one function for backward compatibility.
  • Performance is further increased by about 15%.

Changing of a major version number caused by a new format of language definition files. If you use some third-party language files they should be updated.

Version 3.5

A very nice version in my opinion fixing a number of small bugs and slightly increased speed in a couple of corner cases. Thanks to everybody who reports bugs in he forum and by email!

There is also a new language — XML. A custom XML formerly was detected as HTML and didn’t highlight custom tags. In this version I tried to make custom XML to be detected and highlighted by its own rules. Which by the way include such things as CDATA sections and processing instructions (<? ... ?>).

Version 3.3

Vladimir Gubarkov has provided an interesting and useful addition. File export.html contains a little program that shows and allows to copy and paste an HTML code generated by the highlighter for any code snippet. This can be useful in situations when one can’t use the script itself on a site.

Version 3.2 consists completely of contributions:

  • Vladimir Gubarkov has described SmallTalk
  • Yuri Ivanov has described 1C
  • Peter Leonov has packaged the highlighter as a Firefox extension
  • Vladimir Ermakov has compiled a mod for phpBB

Many thanks to you all!

Version 3.1

Three new languages are available: Django templates, SQL and Axapta. The latter two are sent by Dmitri Roudakov. However I’ve almost entirely rewrote an SQL definition but I’d never started it be it from the ground up :-)

The engine itself has got a long awaited feature of grouping keywords (“keyword”, “built-in function”, “literal”). No more hacks!

Version 3.0

It is major mainly because now highlight.js has grown large and has become modular. Now when you pass it a list of languages to highlight it will dynamically load into a browser only those languages.


  • Konstantin Evdokimenko of RibKit project has created a highlighting for RenderMan Shading Language and RenderMan Interface Bytestream. Yay for more languages!
  • Heuristics for C++ and HTML got better.
  • I’ve implemented (at last) a correct handling of backslash escapes in C-like languages.

There is also a small backwards incompatible change in the new version. The function initHighlighting that was used to initialize highlighting instead of initHighlightingOnLoad a long time ago no longer works. If you by chance still use it — replace it with the new one.

Version 2.9

Highlight.js is a parser, not just a couple of regular expressions. That said I’m glad to announce that in the new version 2.9 has support for:

  • in-string substitutions for Ruby – #{...}
  • strings from from numeric symbol codes (like #XX) for Delphi

Version 2.8

A maintenance release with more tuned heuristics. Fully backwards compatible.

Version 2.7

  • Nikita Ledyaev presents highlighting for VBScript, yay!
  • A couple of bugs with escaping in strings were fixed thanks to Mickle
  • Ongoing tuning of heuristics

Fixed bugs were rather unpleasant so I encourage everyone to upgrade!

Version 2.4

  • Peter Leonov provides another improved highlighting for Perl
  • Javascript gets a new kind of keywords — “literals”. These are the words “true”, “false” and “null”

Also highlight.js homepage now lists sites that use the library. Feel free to add your site by dropping me a message until I find the time to build a submit form.

Version 2.3

This version fixes IE breakage in previous version. My apologies to all who have already downloaded that one!

Version 2.2

  • added highlighting for Javascript
  • at last fixed parsing of Delphi’s escaped apostrophes in strings
  • in Ruby fixed highlighting of keywords ‘def’ and ‘class’, same for ‘sub’ in Perl

Version 2.0

  • Ruby support by Anton Kovalyov
  • speed increased by orders of magnitude due to new way of parsing
  • this same way allows now correct highlighting of keywords in some tricky places (like keyword “End” at the end of Delphi classes)

Version 1.0

Version 1.0 of javascript syntax highlighter is released!

It’s the first version available with English description. Feel free to post your comments and question to highlight.js forum. And don’t be afraid if you find there some fancy Cyrillic letters – it’s for Russian users too :-)